Vincent van Gogh created a series of seven paintings, including the works Three Sunflowers, Five Sunflowers, Twelve Sunflowers (in a Vase), and Fifteen Sunflowers. These paintings were created between August 1888 and January 1889 in Arles, Southern France. Vincent painted them in preparation for the arrival of his fellow painters Paul Gauguin and Emile Bernard, with whom he aimed to establish an artist colony in Provence. In a letter to his brother Theo, Vincent wrote, "I plan to paint a series of pictures, hoping to live with Gauguin in our own studio. They will all be large sunflowers... If I carry out this plan, there will be twelve pictures. A symphony in blue and yellow. I work every morning from sunrise, as the flowers wilt quickly and the whole thing must be painted at once."