Vincent van Gogh created a series of seven paintings, which included Three Sunflowers, Five Sunflowers, Twelve Sunflowers (in a Vase), and Fifteen Sunflowers. These artworks were produced between August 1888 and January 1889 in Arles, Southern France. Vincent painted them in anticipation of the arrival of his fellow painters Paul Gauguin and Emile Bernard, with whom he intended to establish an artist colony in Provence. In a letter to his brother Theo, Vincent wrote, "I have a plan to paint a series of pictures, hoping to live with Gauguin in our own studio. They will all feature large sunflowers... If I follow through with this plan, there will be twelve paintings in total. A symphony in blue and yellow. I work every morning from sunrise because the flowers wither quickly and the entire project must be completed in one go."